This Category has no FAQ yet
Care of the newborn child
This Category has no FAQ yet
A child is a child till it becomes an adult, and hence all children below the age of 18 fall in the pediatric age group. In fact many children continue to come to the clinic long after they cross that age,
Dr. Naveen Kini is available through out the day in any one of the clinics. Call up the particular clinic, and ask the receptionist to put you through. Details regarding the timings are available on the website.
First of all, do not panic. Fever also has a purpose, and helps the body to get rid of the infection faster. Remove extra clothing, give plenty of fliuds, do a warm water sponging of the whole body, and adminster an age appropriate dose of Paracetamol (Crocin, Calpol), and If required Ibuprofen (Ibugesic). If still worried, you can always bring the child to the hospital for a consult with the night Pediatrician.
The first thing to do is to ensure adequate hydration of the child. A child with vomiting may ask for, but may not be able to retain large amounts of fluid. Give small quantities (sips) of electolyte containing fluids like ORS (Electral, Electrobion, Punarjal), tender coconut water, buttermilk with a little salt added, soups etc. at frequent intervals. Anti vomiting medicine (Domstal 1mg/ml) may be adminstered. If vomiting persists, bring child to the hospital for an injection.
Stomach pain may be a symptom of a variety of underlying conditions, from something as simple as worms in the intestines, to something as urgent as appendicitis. Always take the child immediately to the nearest hospital. Antispasmodics like Cyclopam may be given for immediate relief.
Probably the commonest question faced by me, and the one that gives most mothers sleepless nights, and ulcers! Most of the time if the activity, growth and development of the child is normal, the best thing you can do is to leave the child alone. Wait for the child to get hungry. Think of the millions of children who attend school in India, only because of the 'mid-day meal' is given in school. I can assure you that there is not much difference between those children, and yours. Cut down on unnecessary calories like chocolates, chips, sweets etc. The child is the best judge of the quantity of food it needs.
The answer is none. The reason is that food and fruits have very little to do with causing or aggravating cold, contrary to popular belief. Cold , fever, throat pain etc are most often caused by microorganisms like viruses and bacteria, and these are spread through the air. You may have noticed that your child was allright during the summer holidays, and the frequency of cold, cough and fever has increased once school has started.
Simple measures to reduce occurance of colds and fever would be: keeping people with cold and fever away from the child, strict hand washing before touching, feeding or bathing of the child, ensuring proper cross ventilation and air circulation in the house and classroom, avoiding overcrowding, not sending a sick child to school for a few days etc
The child should be put to the breast as soon as the mother and child are ready, preferably within the first hour of birth. Breast milk alone is recommended, and there is no need to give prelacteal feeds like sugar water, cows milk, honey etc.
Most mothers who have had C sections can feed their babies exactly like after a normal delivery. If you are unable to sit up, raise yourself with pillows to an angle of 45 degrees, and then feed. Avoid the temptation to feed the baby lying down.
The baby has to be burped. With every gulp of milk, the baby swallows some amount of air, so that by the end of a feed, a significant amount of air has collected in the stomach. If this air is not brought out, it enters the intestines of the baby causing pain, distention, 'gas', excessive crying, etc. Burping is done either by making the baby sit upright on your lap, or putting the baby on your shoulder, and gently tapping and jerking the baby till the swallowed air is brought out i.e burped. A baby should be burped at least twice after every feed.
When the baby is fed in the lying down position, there is a likelihood of the baby vomiting, and the milk may enter into the lungs, ear etc, causing problems. Also, feeding while lying down makes it difficult for you to burp the baby. More ominously, the mother can fall asleep while feeding, and there have been instances of babies being injured or suffocated by the unsuspecting mother!
Unfortunately, many mothers feel that their milk is not enough just because the baby cries a lot, or by seeing that no milk flows when they squeeze their breasts. You can convince yourself by making the following observations. If your baby is passing urine more than 5 to 6 times in 24 hours, and is gaining weight (at least 20 to 25 gms a day, or 130 to 150 gms a week), you can rest assured that your baby is getting enough.
The two important stimuli that help a mother produce milk are 1. Frequent suckling at the breast by the baby and 2. Complete and frequent emptying of the breast i.e the breast is like a 'akshaya patra', the more milk you take out, the more the milk that fills in! Conversely, pain and worry are two factors that reduce the production of milk. My advice to mothers would be to stop stressing yourself out worrying about whether you are producing enough milk or not. Let nature take its course.
Babies should be fed 'on demand' and not 'by the clock'. Wait till the baby is hungry before putting the baby to the breast. The usual interval between feeds is one and a half, to two hours, but sometimes babies may sleep for longer hours at a stretch, and there is no need to wake them up for feeds. At the same time, there is no need to feed the baby the moment it starts crying. Make sure the baby is not crying because of some other reason like a wet nappy, or improper burping. See that the baby does not suckle at one breast for more than 20 mins, otherwise the nipples become cracked and sore. Don't let the baby use the breast as a pacifier!
Feel the warmth of the body of the child with the back of your hand, and compare it with the warmth of the hands and feet of the baby. If both the body and feet are equally warm and pink, it means that the baby is maintaining it's temperature well. If the hands and feet are blue and cold, it means the temperature has reduced, and baby needs to be wrapped up in warm clothes. If both the body and the extremities feel cold, it means the body temperature is seriously low, and baby needs to be taken to hospital immediately.
Signs like poor feeding, lethargy or lack of active movement of hands and feet, excessive sleeping, incessant/inconsolable crying, abnormal movements of hands, feet , lips or eyes, persistant vomiting, cold body and extremities etc. need you to bring the child for a consult immediately
Keep visitors down to the minimum. See that everyone washes their hands thoroughly before touching the baby. Exclusively breast feed your baby till the baby completes 6 months. Avoid the temptation to start bottle feeds, and top feeds. Avoid potentially harmful traditions practices like Sambrani smoke, feeding the baby mashed herbs, honey and donkey's milk, castor oil instillation into nose etc.
Practice expressing breast milk. When directly expressed into a sterile container, it can be stored in the fridge (not frozen), and used for upto 24 hrs. When you are unavailable, the milk can be warmed by placing the container in warm water, and the milk is to fed to the child by katori, pallada or spoon, not by bottle. For more details visit
By offering your baby the bottle, your are causing what is called 'nipple confusion'. The baby is alternately offered one nipple (breast) which is short, firm and difficult to latch on, and then the bottle where the nipple is long, soft, easy to suck with minimum of effort and, if formula is offered, the milk also tastes different. No prizes for guessing which one the baby will choose! A further deterrent to mothers should be the fact that the feeding bottle is one of the commonest causes of loose motions, ear infections, colic, teeth problems etc.
The first thing to remember is that a mother who is pregnant, or is breastfeeding, is not 'ill' or 'sick'. Much of the well-meaning advise from relatives and friends actually do not have proper scientific basis, and are just unquestioned and followed blindly. There is no need for a new mother to wear multiple layers of clothing, sweater, muffler etc, or is there any need to restrict nutritious food like vegetables, fruits and non-veg. Plenty of liquids should be given to the mother, including water and milk. The mother should be given all the encouragement and love, and not scolding and harsh words. A mother who is comfortable, and relaxed will be able to establish adequate breastfeeding very easily, and the stressed out mother always has most of the problems. Remember, 'anxious mothers get cranky babies!'